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Component List Component Legs
Front of Board Soldering Legs
Back of board Cutting Legs
We have tired to keep this build-guide suitable for beginners or those of you who just want to know how to build from a kit. I suggest if you want a really comprehensive view of what Nanode is like then you really should look as Ian Chilton who has made some amazing build-guides and has a lot more information about each product should you want more information. So a big thank you Ian for all his hard work. If you get stuck use the Internet Relay Chat and you will hopefully find some help there.
Welcome to your Nanode Classic in kit form. You will find in your pink anti-static bag that you have a whole heap of components, a PCB and a raft with IC’s on. Within a an hour of soldering you will have a fully working Nanode Classic.
If you are new to soldering and want some tips – have a look at this guide. Building a Nanode is just a case of replicating the steps shown in the following picture sequence – no real electronics experience needed – just basic soldering skills.
Tools you will need
- Soldering iron – always solder in a well-ventilated room
- Solder – 0.5mm diameter 60/40 is best
- Solder sucker in case you make a mistake
- Side Cutters – to cut the excess component leads off
- Safety goggles
- Programming cable – you can buy one from us for £6 or if you have an FTDI cable or similar you may use that.
- Access to a computer
Once you have built your Nanode Classic you will need access to a computer so you can program it with your application.
THE NANODE CLASSIC
The following gives a step-by-step guide of how to build a Nanode Classic.
The pcb is built in an orderly sequence starting with the resistors and small components that are low on the board first and then working up to the bulkier parts like connectors. After soldering each component, you need to cut off the excess leads from the bottom using some cutters.
We advise is that you take your time during the build, be precise, use minimal solder and carefully check each joint after soldering it. If you suspect any short, check it with a multimeter and fix any shorts there and then, before continuing.
All of the images within this build guide can be enlarged, simply click the image to reveal a bigger version.
PLEASE READ THE WHOLE GUIDE before getting started.
Step 1 – Identify Components in the Anti-Static Bag
The bag contains all you need to build your Nanode Classic. Check you have all the components before you begin. If you find anything missing we apologize. We will post missing parts out to you if you email us at email@example.com. We have included a 32 pin strip in your kit but you probably won’t need to use it.
Step 2 – Front of Classic Board
Please check that the board is the right way up. If you look closely you will see white lettering on the board. This text shows you where the components will go.
Step 3 – Back of Board – MAC chip and Soldered Pins
You should find that the tiny MAC address IC has already been soldered in place on the back of the PCB. You will also see a couple of pins soldered together to bring about a short – this is a modification we had to implement. If your board has neither the soldered points or the MAC chip then you need to email us.
We were worried that the MAC address chip might get lost in the kit bag, and it’s a tricky thing to solder because it’s tiny, so we did it for you.
Step 4 – Component Legs
The first lot of components we are going to solder to the board are the resistors. All components are fitted from the front side of the board, with the legs coming out on the underside of the board like this. The legs will differ in length depending on the component. This picture shows the legs of the resistors. If you bend them slightly to the sides they are less likely to fall out as you turn the board over. We always solder from the underside of the board.
Step 5 – Soldering the Legs
In order to secure all the components in place you need to solder directly onto the board. In soldering you are not trying to melt the component metal, its not like welding. You are creating a connection between the board and the component via a trail of solder. Use as little solder as necessary, as too much solder could very easily bring about a short on the board which will make the board or specific parts of it not work correctly.
Step 6 – Cutting the Legs
Once soldered, cut each legs off with a good pair of side-wire cutters ensuring that you get as close to board as possible.
Step 7 – Cutting the Legs (cont)
Cut the second leg off as close to the board as possible. Some side wire-cutters are better than others, be sure to buy the best tools you can afford.
Step 8 – Soldered Points
You should have a clean dot of solder once you have cut the legs off. If your solder has run or is excessive then you should melt the solder point with the soldering iron and use solder sucker to suck up the solder. You will follow this soldering procedure for all the components. Some will have longer legs than others so you won’t always have to cut excess off. Remember too that you insert from the front side of the board and solder on the back on the board.
Step 9 -Adding the 10K Resistors
We are going to start off with the 10K resistors, there should be seven in your kit. It is vital that you put the right resistors in the correct place on the board. Five of the 10K’s go down the middle of the board and the other two go on the far right. You will see on the pcb white lettering denoting where the resistors sit. You need to identify the 10K’s correctly. Look closely and you will see that there are colour bands on your resistors. Look for the ones that have colour bands in this sequence, brown, black, black, red with an extra brown band at the end as it standard on all resistors. It is also good practice to place all resistors in the same direction reading colours from left to right with the last colour being the brown band. Bend both resistor legs as close to the ‘body’ as possible and put each leg in each hole. You will then need to turn the board over to solder, and once soldered you will need to snip the legs off. – Refer to Step 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 10 – Adding the 51R Resistors
Next up are the 51R’s resistors, there should be four in your kit and they sit above the 10K’s on the middle of the board. Again, check the pcb white lettering denoting where the resistors sit. The colour bands for these resistors are green, brown, black, gold with an extra brown band at the end, as is standard on all resistors. You will then need to turn the board over, solder and snip the legs off. – Refer to Step 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 11 – Adding the 270 Resistors
There are four 270 resistors that need to be fitted. Two go on the far right of the board next to the already soldered 10K’s and the other two sit above the newly placed 51R’s. The colour bands for the 270’s are in this sequence red, purple, black, black with an extra brown band at the end. Do as you have done with the 10K’s and the 51R’s. – Refer to Step 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 12 – Adding the 2K Resistor
Now add the 2K resistor, there should only be one in your kit. It goes at the very top of the line of resistors. Be careful that you DO NOT confuse it with the two remaining resistors the 1R and the 10R. The 2K colour has bands in this sequence red, black, black, brown with an extra brown band at the end. Do has you have done with the other resistors- Refer to Step 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 13- Adding the 1R Resistor
Now add the 1R resistor, there is only one in this build and it goes in the middle of the line of resistors. If you do confuse any of the resistors you are more likely to confuse the IR with the 10R as it has nearly the same colour banding. The 1R has a silver band and the 10R has a gold band. If in doubt, use a multimeter to check the value before you fit it. The 1R colour bands in this sequence brown, black, black, silver with an extra brown band at the end. As with all the steps you need to solder and snip. Refer to Step 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 14 – 10R
Add the 10R resistor, which goes at the very bottom of the line of resistors. Do not confuse IR with the 10R as it has the same colour banding except one has a silver band and the other a gold band and it can be hard to tell them apart. If in doubt, use a multimeter to check the value before you fit it. The 10R colour bands are in this sequence brown, black, black, gold with an extra brown band at the end as it standard on all resistors. As with all the steps you need to solder and snip.Refer to Step 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 15 – Notched Sockets
You are now ready to solder the sockets, but before you do you need to ensure you know which way up they sit on the board. The picture shows that the socket has a “notched-end”. Once you are sure you know which end is notched you can find the “notched-end” layout on the pcb.
Step 16 – Socket Notch on Board
Now you can identify the ‘notch” on the IC sockets you now need to identify the “notch” symbol on the pcb. You will see the photo the semi-circle notch where the ENC28 will go.
Step 17 – Solder Socket on Board
Solder all four sockets onto the board. Be sure to line the “notch end”on the socket with the “notch end” on the board. It’s best to tack diagonally opposite corners to hold the socket in place whilst the rest of the pins are soldered. Make sure they are fitted flat on to the board. These components legs are so short you will not need to snip any excess off. The eight pin socket sits on top of the Hackspace logo on the board but as it does not have a “notch” symbol on the board that is very obvious, you need the “notched end” to face down towards the bottom on the board. (Same direction as the 14 pin beneath it.) Strictly speaking the 8 pin socket and IC is optional, but it is worth fitting at this stage just in case you do want to use it.
Step 18- Crystals 25MhZ and 16MhZ
There are two crystals, be sure you don’t mix them up though as although they look the same they have different values.
Step 18b – Raised crystal off board
Make sure when you solder the crystals that they do not sit directly onto the board, as they may cause a short if you do. Like the resistors if you bend the legs to the side a little once you have positioned the component on the board, it will not fall out as you turn the board over to solder.Refer to Step 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 19- 25 MhZ Crystal
Note position of the 25MhZ crystal. Once inserted into the holes on the board, turn the board over, and follow steps 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 20- 16 MhZ Crystal
Note the position of the 16MhZ crystal. Once inserted into the holes on the board, turn the board over, and follow steps 4, 5, 6, 7.
Step 21 – 22pF & 10nF
It is very easy to get the next two sets of capacitors mixed up. In your kit you will find four 22pF ceramic capacitors that sit each side of each of the crystals. They are marked with 22 and have black ‘flashes’ on the top. You will see that the two 10nF’s do not have a black ‘flash’ and have 103 printed on on them.
Step 22 – 22pF Position
Making sure you have the four 22pF’s you need to fit them either side of the crystals. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 23 – 100nF’s
Now add the seven 100nF ceramic capacitors. They are blue and fit on the board in three groups – two at the left of the ENC28J60, three at the right of it and two at the right hand side of the board.
Note that there is a spare location for a 100nF capacitor between pin 1 of the ATmega328 IC and the reset switch. Do not fit any component in this location. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 24 -Note about 3v3
The 3v3 regulator will look like this photo when you open your bag. In order to sit on the board you need to pull its middle leg out away from the flat edge.
Step 25 Regulator Leg Bent
It is now ready to be inserted into the board.
Step 26- Position of 1st 3v3
One of the 3v3 regulators goes up in the left corner of the board. Make sure the flat edge of the component lines up with the flat edge of the white drawing on the board. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 27- Position of 2nd 3v3
The second 3v3 regulators sits down towards the right corner of the board. Again, make sure the flat edge of the component lines up with the flat edge of the drawing on the board.Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 27b- Position 10nF
Refer back to Step 21 and solder in your 10nF’s.
Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 29 -Three 10uF’s Position On The Board
On the board you will see the white markings show a circle with a + sign next to one of the holes. The hole with the + sign is the hole the positive (long) leg goes into. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 30 – Polarity of LED’s
Like the 10uF’s the LEDs have polarity too.
Step 31 -LED’s
Again look for the + on the board and ensure the long leg is inserted into that hole. Just in case you cannot see the + the long legs goes nearest to the outside of the board. (the shorter leg towards the middle of the board). Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 32 – Switch
Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 33- Mini USB
Add the mini USB connector – next to the LED’s. If you are going to power the board by an alternative source you won’t need to fit the USB. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 34- Solder of USB
I have shown you a picture of the underside of the board so you can see how much solder you need to use on components like the switch They have extra big ‘buckets’ because they come under a lot more use due to all the plugging and unplugging they have to endure. Therefore, make sure you use plenty of solder in the big buckets in order to keep components like this secure.
Step 35- Right-Angled Header
The header serves two functions. It supplies the board with power but is also essential as this is how you programme the board. You can plug in an FTDI cable or you can use Nanode programme lead which you can buy from us here. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 36- Wonky SILs
Before we fit the next two components, I just wanted to show you what we don’t want to achieve. You will see that the SILS have not been inserted very well and as a consequence they slope. You need to ensure that you solder them in straight, else you will find it difficult to fit any shields you might want to attach to your Nandode.
Step 37- 8 SIL
The 6 and 8 SILS allow you to attach shields to your board (should you wish to). You must fit them on the inside row and not the far outside row. The best way to ensure they are straight, is to tack one end pin whilst you hold the SIL straight -if the alignment is correct then solder the remaining pins in place. If you have a shield to hand and attach that, you are guaranteed that the SILS will align. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 38- 6 SIL’s
As for the previous step ensuring you fix them to the inside row and not the outer row of holes. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 39 – Magjack
The next component to be fitted is the Magjack. It can be difficult to get this component in but if you hold it parallel to the board and lower it down it should be easier to line up the holes. Like the USB, this component needs a lot of solder to keep it in place so be sure to fill up the ‘buckets’ underneath fully so it is secure. Turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 40 – Fitting the Protection Diode
The very last component to be fitted is the protection diode (1N4001). Note that there is a white/silver band at one end of this component. This is so you can line it up with the band on the pcb legend so it sits in the correct direction on the board. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 41 – 5v Regulator
IF YOU ARE BUILDING THE NANODE UP TO BE AN RF THEN DO NOT FIT THIS COMPONENT. The 5 V regulator is the final component left to fit. Make sure you get it the right way round on the board with the “stepped” side facing in towards the board. It has very thick and strong legs so be careful when you cut them as they fly off! Be careful to get it straight too as it has a tendency to lean. Again turn the board over and solder, referring to steps 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Step 42 – Plug In
Now that all the components are in in place we need to do a series of tests to make sure the board has been built correctly and that the voltage readings are correct. It is essential that we test the voltage, if we don’t and there is a fault on the board we run the risk of damaging the IC’s and they are costly items to replace. Plug in the programme lead (or an FTDI cable) by attaching one end of it to your computer and fit the other end to the header. (if you don’t recall where the header is, refer to Step 35.) The programme cable does two things, it gets power to the board and it also allows us to programme the IC’s that are on the board .The small blue LED will light-up on the programme lead and stay on, thus indicating the lead is working.
Step 43 -Voltage Test One – Pin 28 and Pin 7
Set the multimeter to DC and we are ready to do the first test. The first test will measure the voltage between pin 7 of the 14 pin chip (74HCT125 GRD) and pin 28 of the ENC28J60 chip, as shown in the photo. You should receive something around 3.3v. Your reading should be no higher than 3.8, if it is, your board needs to be looked at as there is a fault. The photo below shows you a close-up of this test.
Step 44 – Voltage Test One – Pin 28 and Pin 7 (CLOSE UP)
This a close up of the test above.
Step 45 – Voltage Test Two – Pin 7 and Bottom Pin
Take the lead from Pin 28 and move it down bottom pin of the pads that are below the 16MhZ crystal. Again you are looking for a reading of around 3.3v.Your reading should be no higher than 3.8, if it is, your board needs to be looked at as there is a fault. The photo below shows you a close-up of this test.
Step 46 – Voltage Test Two – Pin 7 and Bottom Pin – CLOSE UP
A close-up of the above step.
Step 47 – Voltage Test Three – Pin 7 and Top Pin
The last test looks for an output of around 5v. We now need to measure the voltage between pin 7 of the of the 14 pin chip (74HCT125 GRD) and the top pin of the 3 pads below the 16Mhz crystal, as shown in the photos. If you get an output much over 5v you must not your use your board as there is a fault with your build. The photo below shows you a close-up of this test.
Step 48 -Voltage Test Three – Pin 7 and Top Pin – CLOSE UP
Close up of the above step.
Step 49 – Fittings the IC’s but first……
If all your voltage tests are correct, you can now fit the IC’s. Before you fit them you need to straighten up the legs so they can fit into the sockets. As you can see in photo the IC has ‘splayed legs’. The next photo shows how to bend the legs so they are parallel and therefore able to fit into the sockets.
Step 50 – Straightening In the IC’s
Make you are working on a flat hard surface and place the IC on its side. Press down and straighten up the legs on one side. Then turn the IC over and press down to re-angle the other row of legs.
Step 51 -Straightening In the IC’s (cont)
The legs of your IC’s are now parallel and able to be fitted into the sockets.
Step 52 – IC’s Have Notches
Just as the sockets have notches (refer to step 15) so too do the IC’s. Make sure that the ‘notch’ on each IC lies in the same direction as the ‘notches’ on the sockets when you click them into place on the board.
Step 53 – Insert IC’s and Test For Flashing Red LED!
Remove the programme lead to kill the power to the board and place your IC’s in their respective sockets. Then plug the cable back in and you will see the red LED on the board will start to flash. If it does not you may need to download a driver at this point. You can download here. The flashing red LED means the board is working and is ready for your project.
Be sure to email us at firstname.lastname@example.org and show us what you have done with your Nanode so we can showcase it.